Office of the Surveyor General of the Federation - Nigeria - Boundaries

This Department is structured into four Divisions – International (East and West) and Inter-state (East and West). Nigeria has about 4,000km of 

International Land boundaries which it shares with Niger Republic, Benin Republic, Cameroon, and Chad. Nigeria also shares maritime boundaries with Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, and Benin Republic. Furthermore, Nigeria has a total of 85 Interstate boundaries, covering about 22,000km distance.



Basically, there are four (4) stages in achieving boundary demarcation: 

1)     Provisional Tracing and Demarcation: The delineation is done on paper using instruments such as; old maps, Historical agreements, Court laws, Gazettes’ etc

2)     Beaconing and Final Demarcation: Primary beacons are used on the agreed points and demarcation made at every 2km, provided the boundary is on a straight line, or at any major turning point. If it is on a river; the two sides must be beaconed such that the centre falls in the river. An intermediate beaconing is also be done at 500m interval where secondary pillars are been used for it.

3)     Observation on the Boundary Beacons: second order observation using dual frequency GSP receivers are carried out in order to obtain accurate position of the boundary beacons.

4)     Maintenance of the boundaries: Maintenance is done Via Vista clearing at six (6) meters wide; to allow for visibility. This aspect is been carried out after every two or three years, such that if any pillar is destroyed, it can be replaced.                                        


International Boundary East Division

The international boundary is in land and water space, and covers:

·         Nigeria / Cameroun

·         Nigeria / Chad and

·         Maritime Boundary


International Boundary West

Nigeria shares boundary with the following countries:

  • Nigeria / Niger
  • Nigeria / Benin Republic
  • Nigeria / Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & Principal, Benin Republic, (Maritime Boundary)

Interstate Boundary West

This division is headed by Surv. E.C. Nnamani.

The main function of this division is to mediate between states within its confine.


Inter-State Boundary East Division

Interstate Boundary East Division consists of such States as indicated in Appendix 1.4A (ISB Eastern Zone). Classification done for the purpose of administration only. Appendix 1.4B shows the zoning by the use of Map of Nigeria.

In addition, the report on “The achievements of Boundaries Department from 2009 till Date” also captures relevant information on the activities of the entire Boundaries Department.



·         Field Tracing

·         Provisional demarcation

·         Beaconing

·         Observation

·         Maintenance / Vista Clearing